PMP Exam Resources: Development Approach Glossary

Free PMP Terms and Definitions

Understanding common project management terms can be a challenge for all project managers. To help you understand those terms and definitions Crosswind Project Management has created a free to use glossary to help in your pmp training. In this page you will find the terms and definitions associated within the component areas of framework to get a better understanding of how this process works and relates to project management.

In project management, framework is a method used to create and evolve the product, service, or result during the project life cycle, such as a predictive, iterative, incremental, adaptive, or hybrid method.

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Adaptive ApproachA development approach where requirements can be uncertain and volatile throughout the project because change is expected.
AgileAn iterative software development approach, expressed in a variety of methodologies, which embraces incremental delivery, flexibility, cross-functional and self-organizing teams, direct customer-developer communication and collaboration, and frequent inspection and adaptation
Agile Life CyclesA life cycle that can be iterative or incremental in nature. Commonly called change-driven and applied when there is a high degree of change expected, or uncertainty present.
Agile ManifestoDeclaration of values and principals for Agile development including prioritizing individuals over processes and working software over extensive documentation
Agile Project ManagementA project management framework that applies iterative or incremental development approaches, with an emphasis on value delivery and empowering the team.
Agile Release Planning The approach to determine the number of iterations or sprints needed to complete a release. Included are the features that will be in each iteration or sprint that come together to make up the release.
Approved Change Request A modification request that has been authorized as a result of undergoing the integrated change control process
BacklogAn evolving list of customer-prioritized stories, tasks, and bugs that have not been completed and are not being worked on during the current iteration
Backlog ItemAny story, task, or bug that has not been completed and is not being worked on during the current iteration
Backlog RefinementContinuously updating the prioritized product backlog to reflect any changes, including adding new items, removing items that are no longer appropriate, reprioritizing existing items as necessary, and refining/cleaning user stories to get them ready for planning and execution
Burn ChartA graphical representation of the product work in an iteration or the project.
Burndown ChartA graphical representation of the work (represented by story points for a release and hours for an iteration) remaining over time
Burnup ChartA graphical representation of the work that has been completed over time plotted against the total work
Business Case A document that attempts to prove the economic feasibility of a business idea, such as a product or service, to justify the project
Business Model CanvasCommonly used in lean startups. A one-page, visual summary of the value proposition, customers, infrastructure, customers, and finances of the environment.
Business ValueAn abstraction that includes tangible and intangible elements associated with project, program, and portfolio management that maximize the value to the organization
ChangeA modification to any deliverable, project management plan component, or project document subject to the formal change control process.
Change ControlThe process of determining, documenting, reviewing, and then approving or rejecting any proposed modifications to project documentation, deliverables, or baselines
Change Control Board (CCB)The group accountable for considering, appraising, and making decisions about (approval, postponement, or rejection) proposed project changes and for the documenting and communicating those decisions
Change Control PlanA component of the project management plan that defines the change control board (CCB), their authority, and how the change control system will be applied.
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Change Control SystemThe procedures that govern modifications to project documents, deliverables, and baselines
Change LogA list of proposed project modifications and their associated details including description, date, requestor, and status
Change ManagementA proactive approach to controlling, communicating, and responding effectively to fluctuations
Change Management PlanA plan that defines the project change management process
Change RequestA formal solicitation for a project modification that relates to the approach to, or outcome of, the project. Sometimes called a change control form
Closing Process GroupThe group of activities associated with concluding the project or phase
CrystalA family of light software development methodologies
Crystal ClearA light software development methodology for small (usually 6 or 8 collocated members) teams
Crystal OrangeA light software development methodology for medium (usually 10-40 members) teams
Cumulative Flow Diagram (CFD)A chart that displays features completed over time, in various stages of development, and those in the backlog.
Daily Standup Sometimes called the daily scrum. Team meeting held on a daily basis used to share the daily reality (what you have done since the last daily scrum, what you will do until the next daily scrum, and what impediments stand in your way) and to adapt to that reality, which usually involves an immediate replanning meeting and additional meetings
Definition of Done DOD)A Scrum term representing the objective criteria used to determine if a story meets internal standards/constraints
Definition of Ready (DOR)A checklist the team uses to establish they have everything needed to start work on the project or product.
Development ApproachThe method (predictive, iterative, incremental, agile, or hybrid) utilized during the project life cycle to produce and elaborate the product, service, or result of the project.
Development Approach and Life Cycle Performance DomainThe performance domain that focuses on activities and functions for the project development approach, cadence, and life cycle phases.
DevOpsAn approach that focuses on a smooth flow of work completion from development to operations.
Executing Process Group The processes performed to achieve the work detailed in the project management plan in order to meet the requirements delineated in the project specifications per the work identified in the project management plan
Hybrid ApproachA project approach that utilizes two or more agile and non-agile elements that results in a non-agile outcome.
Ideal Days/HoursA unit of time (in days or hours) exclusively allocated to a given task, that is a unit of time where no other work is performed or interruptions occur
Ideal TimeA unit of time exclusively allocated to a given task, i.e., a unit of time where no other work is performed or interruptions occur
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ImpedimentAnything that prevents the team from working efficiently and effectively
Incremental ApproachAn adaptive development approach where deliverables are created over time with functionality added until the functionality is determined complete.
Incremental Life CycleThe progression of project phases characterized by an early determination of scope, the adjustment of time and cost estimates as the team learns more about the product, and an increase in functionality resulting from incremental delivery
Information RadiatorA wall in the common workspace that contains highly visible, graphic representations of progress
Initiating Process GroupThe processes associated with the inauguration of a new project or phase; typically involves obtaining approval and identifying project stakeholders
IterationA timebox cycle to create a product or deliverable where all the work is completed.
Iteration 0 (Zero)Iteration 0 sets the stage for Iteration 1 and beyond by ensuring that the vision statements for the project and release have been prepared, the features in the product backlog have been prioritized and estimated; the stories have been decomposed, the length of the iteration has been set; the team is adequately staffed, the team is co-located, the definition of done is established, the team environment is acceptable, and the architecture has been determined
Iteration PlanThe work plan for the current iteration.
Iteration PlanningA planning meeting that includes backlog items, acceptance criteria, and work estimates to complete the iteration. In scrum, commonly called a sprint planning meeting.
Iteration ReviewA meeting held at the end of an iteration to review the work completed during that iteration. In scrum, called a retrospective.
Iterative ApproachA development approach that begins with a simple implementation, then expands by adding features until the final deliverable, or outcome is complete.
Iterative Life CycleThe progression of project phases characterized by the development of scope details one iteration at a time, the adjustment of time and cost estimates as the team learns more about the product, and an increase in functionality resulting from iterative development
Joint application development (JAD)A method that involves the product owner/customer or user in the design and development of the product
kanbanSignal cards used in manufacturing to assist flow; used to indicate when new work can be pulled into the flow and when there is a stoppage in flow
Kanban BoardA visual tool that shows work in progress to identify bottlenecks and overallocations, so that the team can optimize the workflow.
Kano AnalysisA model for customer satisfaction that categorizes features as Must Haves, Linear (the more, the better), Exciters/Delighters, or Dissatisfiers
LeanA methodology that emphasizes the elimination of waste, producing only what is valuable to the customer
Lean Startup CanvasA one-page template to communicate the business plan to key stakeholders as effectively as possible.
Life CycleThe phases of a project associated with the work of the project, as opposed to being associated with its project management
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)An approach to assess the complete environmental impact of a product, process, or system.
Lost IterationAn iteration that does not result in a deliverable
Overlapping RelationshipA relationship between project phases where one starts before the predecessor finishes.
Pair ProgrammingAn extreme programming practice that pairs two programmers at one station, typically with one programmer coding (driver) and one reviewing (navigator); an excellent cross-training device
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Phase GateA review which is conducted at the end of a phase to decide if the project should continue to the next phase, if the project should continue to the next phase with modification, or if the project or program should be terminated.
Planning Process GroupThe processes required to create the management and other planning documents that comprise the project management plan
Predictive Life CycleA life cycle type that determines project scope, time, and cost during the early phases of the life cycle.
Product Life CycleThe phases of product development, typically defined as conception through delivery, expansion, maturity, and disengagement
Product RoadmapThe description of how the project will proceed from its current state to the state described in the vision statement
Progressive ElaborationThe iterative process of increasing the level of detail in accordance with the increase in information discovery and estimation accuracy
Project Life CycleThe phases, from initiation through closure, of a project associated with the work of the project, as opposed to being associated with its project management
Project Management Process GroupThe aggregation of the processes, along with their inputs, outputs, tools, and technique, that make up project management including initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing
Project PhaseAn aggregation of logically related activities that results in the completion of a deliverable or deliverables
Project Vision StatementA document that defines the goal of the project, typically referencing the target customer, the need or opportunity, and the key benefit; often includes the main alternative to the project and why the project goal is more desirable
Relative Authority The authority that the project manager has relative to the functional manager's authority over the project team and project environment.
ReleaseA deployable software package that incorporates several iterations
Release ManagementActivities performed to ensure that the software is ready for release to the customer
Release PlanA plan that defines iterations, dates and features or outcomes to be delivered over multiple iterations.
Release PlanningDefining the prioritized and estimated stories from the product backlog that will be developed in the release and determining the date of the release
RoadmapA document that contains the high-level plan of the features that will be developed during the next few releases; the product owner/customer owns and maintain the document
Rolling Wave PlanningPreparing in more detail as the project becomes clearer
ScrumAn Agile methodology that delivers finished increments of a product at the end of each Sprint (a timeboxed iteration with a duration of one to four weeks)
Scrum of ScrumsA planning forum used in multiple-team projects to coordinate resources and dependencies
Scrum ValuesOpenness, focus, commitment, courage, visibility, and humor
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SprintAn abbreviated development cycle (typically 30 days) that results in potentially shippable product
Sprint BacklogThe list of stories scheduled for the current iteration
Sprint PlanningA meeting between the product owner and the team to prioritize and identify stories for the next Sprint
Sprint Retrospective MeetingA meeting held at the end of each Sprint in which the ScrumMaster and the team discuss what went well and what could be improved during the next Sprint; part of the inspect and adapt philosophy
Sprint ReviewAn informal meeting at the end of the Sprint to demonstrate to the product owner what was accomplished during the Sprint
Story MapA graphical model for the team to see all the features and functions with a product, so they know what they are building and why they are building it.
Story PointA measurement that defines the size and complexity of a story/user story relative to a previously estimated story/user story
StoryboardingA prototype method that uses graphics or images to show how a process or outcome should flow, and how the product, service, or application should work when complete.
TailoringThe determination of the conglomeration of processes, inputs, tools, techniques, outputs, and life cycle phases appropriate to the management of a project.
Task (Agile)A decomposed portion of a story/user story
Task (Predictive)An activity to be completed on the project
Task boardA surface upon which tasks written on cards are grouped under their user stories and pinned in priority order; used to track the progress of the project
Technical DebtAn obligation incurred as a result of an opportunistic design or architectural approach which results in complexity and increased costs in the long term; can also refer to code that will be difficult to maintain as a result of ignoring the definition of done, writing poor
TimeboxA fixed duration of time that cannot be expanded
User StoryA document describing a unit of functionality written in business language that is used as the basis of conversation between the product owner/customer and the team to elicit functionality details; a user story is independent, negotiable, valuable, estimable, small, and testable
Value Delivery SystemTasks associated with building, sustaining, and evolving an organization with project and product work.
Value PropositionThe reasoning behind why an organization does or should do something.
VelocityThe rate at which stories are completed during an iteration, typically measured in story points; also known as team velocity
Velocity ChartA chart that shows the rate (typically in points) that deliverables are produced, tested, and accepted within a set time interval.
Vision StatementA document that defines the goal of the project, typically referencing the target customer, the need or opportunity, and the key benefit; often includes the main alternative to the project and why the project goal is more desirable
VolatilityThe potential for unpredictable and rapid change in a project or product environment.
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